24 mayo 2008

Las Ballenas en el Perú, Ignacio García - Godos Naveda

¿Qué es una ballena?

- Mamíferos marinos del orden Cetacea, generalmente de gran tamaño.

- Completamente adaptados para la vida en el mar, carecen de extremidades inferiores y pelo, todo su ciclo de vida ocurre en el agua.

- Orificios respiratorios ubicados en posición dorsal

Siendo un término de uso común, la palabra BALLENA agrupa varias especies y familias de cetáceos, tanto con barbas y con dientes, desde los rorcuales hasta los delfines grandes como la orca o ballena asesina.
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¿Ballenas en el Perú?


- Desde la era pre-inca los antiguos peruanos de la costa conocieron a las ballenas. Las poblaciones pre-cerámicas usaron los restos varados en las playas para proveerse de grasa y alimento, así como estructura para sus casas.

- Sin embargo, no se tienen pruebas de que en el Perú los indígenas hayan cazado ballenas, como sí ocurrió en otras partes de América.

- En vez de cazarlas, en el Perú las ballenas fueron glorificadas y temidas, como se muestra en grabados y cerámica de la antigüedad.

¿Qué especies de cetáceos existen en el Perú?


En el Perú se han registrado un total de 32 especies de cetáceos

- Familia Balenopteridae (6 especies) - Familia Balaenidae (1 especie) - Familia Physeteridae (3 especies) - Familia Ziphiidea (3 especies) - Familia Delphinidae (17 especies) - Familia Phocoenidae (1 especie) - Familia Platanistidae (1 especie).
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Download PDF de la presentación

Autor: Ignacio García-Godos Naveda
Centro Peruano de Estudios Cetológicos (CEPEC)
ag_godos@yahoo.com

2 comentarios:

marmadukescott dijo...

NEW RECORD OF MOTHER-CALF PAIR OF SOUTHERN RIGHT WHALE,
EUBALAENA AUSTRALIS, OFF THE PERUVIAN COAST (2003) (#1)

Luis Santillán 1, 2, Milena Roca 3, Manuel Apaza 4, Larissa Rosa de Oliveira 5, Karina Ontón 1, 6

On 26 August 2003 a new record of southern right whale
Eubalaena australis was obtained for the Peruvian coast,
off San Fernando Bay (15°08’S, 75°21’W), 25km north of
San Juan de Marcona, Department of Ica (Figure 1). It
represents a third confirmed sighting of E. australis for
Peru after one sighting in November 1987 and another in
September 1996 (Van Waerebeek et al., 1992; 1998). Based
on behavioral cues and relative body sizes, the whales
were a mother-calf pair. The mother measured an
estimated 15m in length and the calf was less than half
the length of the adult. This sighting, by naked eye from
shore, some 100m away from the individuals from 14:00
until 14:30 hrs is the second case of a mother-calf pair of
southern right whales documented in Peruvian waters.
The other previous record in September 1996 was made
by Van Waerebeek et al. (1998). The sighting documented
in this note is the northernmost confirmed record of this
species in the Southeast Pacific ocean. The whales in San
Fernando Bay were sighted in a shallow water zone
locally known as pasadizo. Most sightings of southern right
whale with calves, registered on the Chilean coast were
in shallow waters, with depths ranging from 5-30 meters
(Aguayo et al., 1992). San Fernando Bay is generally quiet,
and visited only by shellfish fishermen because it is
difficult to reach, in spite of its relative proximity to San
Juan de Marcona Port.
Figure 1. Sighting area of southern right whales.
84 L.SANTILLÁN, M.ROCA, M.APAZA, L.R.OLIVEIRA and K.ONTÓN
LAJAM 3(1): 83-84, January/June 2004
The whales were near the surface at all times,
maintaining the same position without moving any
significant distance, with slow movements, and were
observed for at least 30 minutes next to each other.
Periodically the calf was seen to position itself opposite
or at a right angle to the mother, presumably in
attempts to suckle. During our observation period the
mother did not seem to respond to this action. The back
and head of the adult whale frequently became visible.
Roughly 80-100m from the whales, artisanal fishermen
were diving and gathering shellfish from a small boat.
Although the fishermen did not pay attention to the
whales and hence did not actively harass them, their
presence and activity appeared to disturb the whales.
Shell fishermen of San Juan de Marcona informed that
a large right whale had arrived alone at San Fernando
Bay in early July (S.Quispe and P.Llerena, pers. comm.).
Assuming this was the same adult, it is probable that
parturition occurred in July or August. In the second
half of October, one month after the sighting reported
here, one of the authors (MR) visited San Fernando Bay
again but did not sight whales, but was told by local
fishermen that whales were seen leaving San Fernando
around the last days of September.

malcolm.allison@gmail.com

marmadukescott dijo...
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